White Papers

Use of Two Novel Hybrid-Type “Crossover” TBMs for Hard Rock Conditions with Water Inflows

Mixed ground tunnels come in all kinds. In rock tunnels with possible faults and high pressure water, the challenges are many. With the advent of Crossover TBMs, contractors can minimize risk in such conditions while maximizing efficiency. The newest generation of Crossover is exemplified by two projects in Albania and Turkey.

A 5.56 m Crossover TBM destined for Turkey’s Gerede Water Transmission will be assembled using Onsite First Time Assembly (OFTA) from within an existing tunnel. The unique machine will bore through 30 fault zones requiring the TBM to be sealable to up to 20 bar so pre-consolidation grouting can be done. EPB mode will only be used in poor ground—in this mode, the TBM will bore sequentially using the screw conveyor fore and aft gates.

Skewing further towards hard rock, a unique 6.2 m diameter Double Shield TBM with Crossover features was designed for Albania’s Moglicë Headrace Tunnel. The machine features closure doors and a sealing system to contain inrushes of water until they can be grouted off.

This paper will discuss the unique aspects of the Crossover designs and their utilization at the two projects.


  Download File